And herein lies the problem. Data is of no use to humans and their systems unless transformed into Information and later, Knowledge. But before we delve into the problem, lets expand this model to include a step between Data and Information, which we can call Capta (Checkland 1982), or the collation and categorising of select data.
Capta, is really where the Smart Technology lies; software, edge computing, algorithms, digital models, etc. But Capta is not immune to Cognitive Filters, it’s just that new-to-industry players are being added to the social pool of participants.
In the Digital World, Cognitive Filters are things of bias and do not stand up well to the hypothesis-testing model. They are interpretive in nature and simultaneously specific and fluid to individuals and groups and is what we mean by the term Culture. Of course, we could argue that Cognitive Filters exist at the sensor level too, by virtue of those who design, manufacture and install them.
While the trend may point to removing humans from the equation, the reality is vastly different. Humans must play a pivotal role both in managing the transition and ultimately in the autonomous systems of the future, if dependability is a desired outcome.